Ozark History / 34 (Marberry)

This year, I, along with 15 other classmates, was able to experience what it is like to be a journalist. Granted, none of us was as good as Barbara Walters or Dennis Murphy, but we conducted 16 very good interviews for the South Shore Memory Project. This project required us to interview a person (or a couple), between the ages of 65 and 80, who lived here most of his or her life. Each student had to write a list of questions to be asked during the interview. Prior to the start of this project, our class brainstormed 9 topics on which we based our questions. Even though our brainstorm was more of drizzle, each of us was able to write 45 to 50 questions to ask our interviewees. The interviews were taped on audiocassettes, which were later transcribed (word for word) and printed from the computer. During the interview sessions, we took pictures with a digital camera that the school purchased with the grant money we received specifically for this project.

This project proved to be a very educational experience. From this project, I learned about the technical side of an interview; I learned how to operate a digital camera and a hi-tech audio recorder. I also learned about life in Flippin in the early 1900s. My grandparents, whom I interviewed, had much to share with me about their youthful days. I am confident that my fellow classmates have also acquired this information.

The technical portion of this project was probably the hardest to learn. The digital camera had so many buttons and functions that it could perform that it was hard to keep all of the information straight. The hi-tech audio recorder was even more difficult; it took 4 people to figure out how to work the machine. After I thought I had all

Ozark History / 35 (Marberry)

Of the equipment learned, I was allowed to check it out of the media center. Despite the informative workshop that the media specialist gave me, I learned the value of taking notes (something that I should have learned before I got to my grandparent’s house with all of the equipment). Luckily, my grandpa was an experienced problem-solver and we learned how to operate the camera together, using the instructions the media specialist provided me.

Spending an afternoon interviewing my grandparents was probably the most entertaining educational experience I’ve had. I learned a lot about my grandparents, stuff I never before knew. I learned things about World War II that isn’t printed in textbook. I learned how hard my grandparents had to work to make ends meet. In addition, I learned how two people worked together to make their marriage last 50 years, an accomplishment that isn’t common in today’s society. This interview provided me the opportunity to learn things that most teenagers do not take the time to learn.

Before I conducted this interview, I had little knowledge of the early times in Flippin. I had heard my grandparents talking about the days of back then, but none of the words really seemed to sink into my memory. I regret, now, not paying more attention to my grandparent’s stories; I can remember some of the more recent ones they told me. I guess I finally realized that I am the link between the past and the future. I am the one who will pass these stories down to the next generation, for if I donut, these times when America was perhaps at its climax point, will die with my grandparents. It is my responsibility, no, my privilege, to pass these stories on to my kids. I guess the most important thing I learned is how valuable oral history really is.

 

Imagine a typical Jettisons cartoon. George is awakened by his alarm (which eventually turns over the bed because he snoozes through the first alarm). Jane goes downstairs, or rather, the suction tube, and fixes breakfast (all she has to do is press a few buttons and the meal is shot out of the food-o-matic). Judy complains about her so-called life to the talking diary (which is conveniently shaped like a pair of lips) that floats behind her. Elroy plays basketball, a sport in which no running is required instead, he zips around on a mobile platform that allows him to dunk the ball (and he’s only 4 feet tall). Moreover, they don’t have to dress themselves because the Jetsons have a machine that dresses the entire family.

Is the previous description the kind of life to which we have to look forward in the 21st century? Does our future contain moving sidewalks in our homes (which are located somewhere in the clouds)? Are we going to be transported to and from places in a fuel-powered bubble that has capsules to deposit each passenger to his or her desired destination? I doubt it, but, with today’s rapidly changing technology, this lifestyle could be close to normal. The progress of the world has been so intense in the 20th century that it is hard to imagine what to expect in the 21st century.

What can we expect in the 21st century? No one has the answer to this question, but many people speculate that the 21st century will be much like this century. Granted, clothing styles will change, computers will run faster and more efficiently (unless the rumors about the Y2K problems are true), and technology will continue to change to better our lives. But, people will still starve in foreign lands, countries will still fight wars, and natural disasters will still occur. People will still use illegal drugs, the crime rate will continue to haunt us, and people will still hate others for whatever insignificant reason of which they can think. These aspects of time will never change; no matter what century we enter. In other words, the 21st century will have its good times and bad times, just like any other century.

What can change are our viewpoints on these aspects. If we make great expectations, then the 21st century will be great. I expect more people will notice what is happening around them, like the starving, the fighting, and the dying. I expect more people will help where help is needed. I expect drug awareness programs will make people aware of what drugs can really do to a person’s mind, body, and spirit. I expect more people will get involved with crime prevention programs and try to take a bite out of crime. Most importantly, I expect people will learn to get over their differences and realize that hate only cripples progression. My expectations might seem a bit odd, but these hopes will make our world a better place in the 21st century.

Will the 21st century be as progressive as the 20th century? Well, in the 20th century, many things were invented, causing this century to be known as the most progressive century. Thomas Edison patented the electric light bulb, which enlightened us about the prospects of electricity. Henry Ford was driven by motivation to create the first automobile manufacturing plant; one of many that still exists today. Organ and tissue transplants are performed on an almost everyday basis, allowing recipients of these vital body parts to lead normal lives. Furthermore, computers are linked together so that people are able to send e-mail and photographs over telephone lines, as well as cruise the Information Superhighway, the most informative source in the world. All of the above things were not possible until the 20th century. Yes, the 20th century was a progressive one.

How can the progression of the 21st century ever compare with the progression of this century? The centuries might be alike in the manner before mentioned, but I believe the progression of the 21st century will be totally different from that of the 20th century. What else could be invented? Not much, but existing inventions can be improved, which is a form of progression. I think the progression of the 20th and 21st centuries will be different because the 20th century was a time for inventing and the 21st century will be a time for upgrading what was invented. Scientists and inventors in the 21st century can make our lives easier and better by upgrading existing products, like cars and computers. Recently, the focus has been on how to make cars more fuel-efficient and comfortable. Moreover, computers have been getting a makeover; now, many computers can think faster and can complete multi-tasks. Computer technology has been changing so rapidly; it is hard to keep up with the new equipment. The 21st century will be one of improving the quality of our lives (and our technological equipment).

In conclusion, the typical Jetsons setting would be an ideal life, just not a practical one. I don’t think that talking robots with emotions and chairs that move us to different locations in a building will be common in the 21st century. In addition, a belt that can make a person fly would be a useful device, yet, I cannot see an invention like that in the near future. Furthermore, an interstellar bus to different planets would help some of the overpopulation problems (both housing and traffic), but it is not possible. Unfortunately, I don’t believe that our technology is advanced enough to produce some of the previously mentioned ideas. The 21st century will be a century of progress, even if progression means to upgrade existing products. No one is sure what to expect for the upcoming century; most likely, it will be much like the current century. However, we do know that the 21st century will bring new ideas to better our lives.

What do tuna salad sandwiches, a tape recorder, and Bob and Gracie Marberry have in common? The answer is an interview for the South Shore Memory Project. On February 10, 1999, I went to my Gammer and Poppa's house to eat lunch and interview them. Gammer and Poppa are my only grandparents that live in this area, let alone this time zone. Needless to say, Gammer and Poppa are my favorite grandparents.

After I got out of school that Wednesday afternoon, I drove to Gammer and Poppa’s house, which is located south of Cedar Terrace. I took Highway 62 to K&K Crafts and turned onto 6th Street. I went up the road to where Orchard Street intersects 6th Street; then, I turned right and followed the road to where Hillcrest Road turns left from 6th Street. I went up the hill on Hillcrest Road and turned in the driveway of the second house on the left, where Gammer and Poppa live.

Poppa built the house where the interview took place. He saw a blueprint design that he liked in a magazine, and he modified it into the current model. Poppa, my dad, and my Uncle Steve started pouring the concrete footings in the fall of 1995 and the house was completed in September 1996. The house isn’t as big as the one in which they used to live (also one that Poppa built), but I think it’s prettier. The two houses sit right next to each other, so the scenery (which is gorgeous) didn’t change from the move. The house is brick with vinyl siding, and it has two bay windows in the front. The bay windows are the windows for the two bedrooms in the house. Across the middle section of the front (and between the two bay windows), there is a set-in porch with motion lights (ones that can’t detect motion from me because I’m too short). There is a double car garage on the far left of the house. It was open when I arrived at the house, revealing Poppa’s silver Chevy Silverado and Gammer's gold Cadillac. In front of the house are 3 flowerbeds, one in the front of the master bedroom, one next to the driveway, and one in the middle of the yard. In the spring and summer, Poppa grows colorful flowers in the flowerbeds. The plants make the house look even prettier. In addition to the flowerbeds, there is a lamppost with 5 globe lights that turn on at dusk. Poppa also has little Chinese hat lights that are placed along the cement walkway that leads to the porch.

When I first arrived at Gammer and Poppa’s house, I saw them outside, waiting for me. Gammer was dressed in a white short-sleeved blouse and green slacks. She was standing on the driveway, watching Poppa, who was dressed in a light blue shirt and medium blue pants, tend to the flowerbeds. I gave them both a big hug and kiss. Then, I put on my puppy dogface and showed Poppa a dent in my driver’s side floorboard, where I ran over a BIG rock the previous day. Both Gammer and Poppa gave me the "you need to drive more safely" lecture, but Poppa got out a block of wood and a mallet to fix the dent. He’s really good about helping people with their problems with their cars or houses. While Poppa was fixing my car, Gammer and I went inside to visit.

After Poppa came in the house, he and I sat at the bar in the kitchen while Gammer stood at the bar in front of us. We talked for a little while about school and work (I had just gotten a job at Micro Plastics the previous weekend). I asked Gammer and Poppa how their week went; they responded that it was uneventful. As Gammer and I fixed the tuna salad sandwiches, Poppa looked over the interview questions that I had prepared. Gammer had already made the tuna salad, so we just had to put the salad on the bread. Gammer makes the best tuna salad. Gammer and I finished fixing the sandwiches and we took them to the porch that was built off the dining room. We ate and talked for awhile, just like we used to do on Sunday afternoons with my sisters. I explained to Gammer and Poppa what the interview would be like and what information I needed from them.

We finished our sandwiches and Gammer went into the kitchen to get herself another glass of soda. Poppa and I got out the digital camera, which the school purchased for such an occasion, and we started taking pictures to see how the camera worked. I think Poppa liked the camera, but he wasn’t too keen on the price. We went outside to take pictures of the house and me. Then we went inside, where we found Gammer waiting for us. I showed her the pictures that Poppa took. Despite Poppa’s crafty photography, I had to delete the pictures.

Finally, we started setting up for the interview. Poppa helped me set up the microphone stand while Gammer plugged in the tape recorder. Gammer and Poppa seated themselves on the couch while I sat down on the floor in front of them. The couch that they sat on had blue, white, and green stripes and two matching pillows it is my favorite couch. Above the couch is a mirror with a black and gold frame and eucalyptus swag with flowers in the center. The microphone stand was positioned on the floor next to my left side and just between Gammer and Poppa. The tape recorder was on the floor behind an end table next to the couch. After we set up all of the equipment, we started the actual interview.

During the interview, Gammer and Poppa did well. I could tell that Gammer was nervous at first, but midway through the interview, she relaxed. While Poppa was talking, Gammer would quietly get up and refill her drink or get another cigarette from the kitchen. In addition, a few times, she accidentally clanged together two glass dishes. Poppa crossed and uncrossed his legs during the interview, and he would also pick lint off his pants. I was sitting on my feet when we started the interview; after a few minutes, I had to change my position because my feet were numb. I also would nervously tap my hands on my legs. Overall, we had a great time doing the interview.

While we were finishing the interview, the tape stopped recording, so we stopped, too. Afterward, we got out Gammer's big wooden hatbox and looked at all the old pictures. Gammer let me take some of the old pictures so that I could scan them into the computer at school. Both Gammer and Poppa explained to me who was in the pictures and what stories were behind some of them. I saw pictures of when my uncles, aunt, and dad were little kids. They were so cute! I had a lot of fun that afternoon, but I had to leave around 2:45 p.m. so that I could get my little sister from school. I gathered all of the equipment and pictures and Gammer and Poppa helped me load it all into my car. Then, I kissed Gammer and Poppa, thanked them for lunch, and expressed how much fun I had during the afternoon, I think they had fun, too.

Jenny: Ok, this is Jennifer Marberry, and I’m interviewing Bob and Gracie Marberry; they’re my grandparents, and I call them Gammer and Poppa. Ok, Poppa, where did you go to school and how many students attended there?

Bob: I went to Flippin Public School and there was probably around 300 to 350 students.

Jenny: How many were in your grade alone?

Bob: Um, in my graduating class was 12. Um, it varied, of course, from year to year through school, but uh, in my elementary years, there was probably 20, 15 to 20.

Jenny: Gammer, what type of classes did you take?

Gracie: I took all of the required classes, like English and math and history, and then I took typing and shorthand and business law and any commercial classes I could get.

Jenny: And you also went to Flippin, right?

Gracie: The last 4 years, 9th through 12th grade. I moved here in 1946, and I was in the 9th grade.

Jenny: Where did you go before Flippin?

Gracie: Buhu-immediately before I went to school in Los Angeles, California, but I had gone to school in New Mexico and Texas.

Jenny: How many students were your in-in your class?

Gracie: In my graduating class, there was 19, uh, we moved here during the bul-building of the Bull Shoals Dam (coughs), so, there was, oh, at times, 25 to 30 students in a class, but there was only 19 of us graduating.

Jenny: Poppa, what type of classes did you take?

Bob: Oh, English, math, typing, uh, oh, science, geography, um (pauses), that, that general, the general classes.

Jenny: What types of clubs or sports did you participate (pause) in?

Gracie: There weren’t many clubs here, whuh, there was, uh (pause), oh, uh (pause...)

Jenny: Was there like, Future Business Leaders of America...

Gracie: No, there wasn’t anything like that, it was the one that you took with...

 

Bob: FHA.

Gracie: Yeah, FHA. Future Homemakers of America, and no, I didn’t play any sports.

Jenny: What about you, Poppa?

Bob: Uh, baseball and, and that type thing I didn’t play basketball uh, not in-on teams, uh, and uh (pause), that was about all in school that I, that I played.

Jenny: Did you do anything outside of school, sportswise?

Bob: Uh...

Jenny: Activity wise...

Bob: Fishing and hunting and that type thing.

Jenny: Cool. What about you, Gammer?

Gracie: Not me (laughs).

Jenny: Um, what did your school look like?

Bob: Well, there was du, it consisted of, uh, of course, the 12 grades, but, uh, it was uh, uh, the building that now exists there, the old, the old stone building was the elementary and uh, where the elementary uh, offices and that, that building, uh, since now, was, was a building that burned in 19 and uh...

Gracie: 51.

Bob: 51. And uh, uh, it had, it consisted of the gymnasium, and uh, and then uh, several classrooms surrounding that, the home economics and all of that was there and then uh, uh, the building where the uh, where the uh, I think the Vo-Tech, the vocational building or something is there now was the uh, agriculture building and uh, we had a shop and all of that in there but we uh... (Gracie coughs) We had shop classes and all sort of agriculture.

Gracie: Also, that building where Mr. Lewis's office is now, the superintendent’s office...

Bob: That was...

Gracie: That was...

Bob: home economics.

Gracie: home economics building that they built during the time after I came here...

Bob: Uh...

Gracie: probably in 47, maybe, uh, that, that building was our home-ec building.

Jenny: Oh, I didn’t know that. When did you graduate?

Gracie: I graduated in 1950.

Bob: I graduated in 48.

Jenny: Cool. And was it a big graduation ceremony, like we have now, or was it (pause) different?

Gracie: It was basically just the same thing as you have now, just not as many (pause) students.

Bob: At that time, we had, uh (clears throat), uh, baccalaureate services and also commencement and baccalaureate and uh, we had two separate, uh, (pause) exercises and uh, uh, generally, the uh, baccalaureate service was, uh...

Gracie: It was, it was always on the Sunday before graduation...

Bob: Sunday, yeah, usually...

Gracie: at one of the churches.

Bob: at one of the churches in town, at that time.

Jenny: So it wasn’t together, like it is now?

Gracie and Bob: No...

Gracie: it was two separate...

Bob: two separate...

Gracie: services.

Bob: services. And uh, at the uh, baccalaureate, uh, we didn’t wear our caps and gowns, at that, I donut think, we did at graduation, at uh, the uh, at commencement, I guess we could call it, uh, exercises, we was, we wore caps and gowns there.

Jenny: Cool. Um, on recreation, what did you do for fun, after school or during the summer?

Gracie: You know what there was a movie theater here in Flippin back then; there was also a skating rink.

Bob: (agrees) And uh...

Gracie: So we went to the movies...

Bob: We went to a lot of movies and uh, uh, and skating and uh, some fishing.

Gracie: There was a sweet shop in town, too, where all of the kids hung out...

Bob: Kids hung out a lot.

Gracie: had Cokes and ice cream.

Bob: Couple of uh, couple of cafes and uh, that we, the kids, hung out at, and outside of that, run around in cars (laughs).

Jenny: Where these buildings located at?

Bob: The theater building was, oh, where Edkins uh, Doors is now, was, it was a regular theater building with the marquee and the whole bit, you know, but that burned in about, uh, 19 and 63, uh, that building burned down and uh, uh, rebuilt into the existing building. Um, the sweet shop was on the corner, uh, by where Milligan's Insurance is now, uh, right in that corner was uh, a lady named Irene Huddleston, uh, had a sweet shop and a little cafe in there, and, and also her living quarters was there, and, uh, at the end of the street where the old rock building is on the upper end of the street was uh, Rock Castle Cafe and, uh, it was uh, a hang-out place for a lot, of a lot of kids and uh, um, the skating rink was at 6th and, no, 7th and Main Street, between 6th and 7th on Main Street, on the south side of the street, and it was, uh, in a building that is no longer there, uh, there’s some, a couple of houses there was now, and uh, mm (clanging of glass dishes), that’s about it, I guess, during the years (Gracie coughs) that I was in high school, before that there was other restaurants and cafes.

Gracie: There was 2 saloons, too, but we didn’t hang out in them (laughs).

Bob: Yeah, there was several, several saloons and beer joints and that type of thing (clanging dishes) during the building of the dam.

Jenny: So, when you went to the movies, how much did it cost to get in?

Bob: I believe it was, uh, 10 or 15 cents (pause) to go to the movie, and popcorn was probably, uh, 10 cents (clanging dishes), and uh, at that time, uh, uh, a sundae at the sweet shop was a quarter and uh, 20 to 25 cents, depending on which size you got (laughs). Uh, pop was a nickel and uh, candy bars, most candy bars were considerably larger and uh, uh...

Gracie: Yeah, but it was a lot harder to get a nickel or a dime then.

Bob: Yeah, they were harder to come by (laughs) then they are now, but uh, uh...

Gracie: We had fun.

Bob: I could take a dollar and uh, Grace and I could go see a movie, go to the sweet shop and uh, have a pretty good night out for a dollar.

Jenny: Um, when did you get your first television set?

Bob: 19 and 51, probably after we, Grace and I were married and it was probably 19 and 51 or 52 when we got our first television set. That was when the TV station was put in Davenport, Iowa, they didn’t have a local television station until then, and they put in one in Davenport and on in Rock Island, Illinois, which was right across the river from Davenport and uh...

Gracie: Most of our shows we got, there weren’t a lot of shows, came out of Chicago...

Bob: Yeah, most of em came out of Chicago.

Gracie: Wrestling was the big show on Saturday night (laughs).

Jenny: I think it still is, too (laughs).

Gracie: Yeah.

Jenny: How many channels did you get on your television set?

Bob: Probably just two.

Jenny: Compared to the (pause) 20 to 30 most cable boxes can get now.

Bob: Yeah, at least, yeah you can get 20 to 30 now, but uh, uh, I think when we was there in Davenport, we, the only two stations we got were uh, Rock Island and Davenport and uh, then (pauses), like Grace said, uh, they, they would pull shows out of uh, out of Chicago and uh, that was, that was about all I think we could get then.

Jenny: Were they good quality pictures or were they fuzzy?

Gracie: They were pretty good black and white pictures.

Bob: Pretty good, pretty good pictures, they, we were, course, there the only thing we-was required was uh, just a rabbit ears on, on the television set and they were pretty good pictures, uh...

Gracie: We probably wouldn’t think they were very good now, but...(laugh) they looked pretty good then.

Bob: No, but uh, they were limited, uh, to the distance and, and I think probably a 17 inch television was the biggest thing that they had at that time. Uh, the first televisi-television sets that I saw was like a 12 inch screen, which is very small, and uh, but then by the time we bought one, you could get around a 17 inch, I think was what we had, and uh, they were pretty small, com-compared to what we have now (laughs).

Jenny: What was your most memorable recreational event that you did?

Gracie: When? I mean, like recently, or back then, or...

Jenny: Back then. What did, what did you really like to do?

(Pause)

Gracie: Go to movies, I think, more than anything, we went to movies and...

Bob: Uh, when I was, when I was a kid, recreationally, I guess, uh, uh, when I was a kid, uh, uh, we did quite a bit of fishing and, uh, my uh, whole family went to, down to Batesville, Arkansas, and fished there and, uh, we caught lo-like-lo-like lots of (laughs) lots of fish, and uh we packed them in ice in, in what the old cream cans that they used to pick up cream at the, or milk, at the farmers, we, we packed several of those full of fish and brought them home with us, and, and I guess that was probably one of my most memorable...we camped there for close to a week and fished and that probably one of my most memorable experiences, and uh, recreationally.

Jenny: What about you, Gammer? Do you have any (pause) memorable recreational events?

Bob: (To Gracie) What about Blue Water?

Gracie: Well, yeah, we went fishing one time in Blue Water Lake in New Mexico, when I was a kid and I caught my first fish and everyday, I caught a whole bunch of fish and I was fishing with my dad and, course, I wouldn’t touch the worms; he was having to put the worms on the hook for me and I think he got jealous because I was catching more fish than him, so the second morning we went out, he told me if I was going to fish with him (laughs), I had to learn to bait my own hook. So, I'd close my eyes and get a hold of those worms and try to put the hook through, through the worm with my eyes shut (laughs). But, we had lots of fun, and there were a lot of Indians, it was out on a Indian reservation and it was fun to watch the old Indians come up and sit around the trading post and sell their (pause) jewel-jewelry, their uh, silver and turquoise jewelry they had made, and their rugs and, and they lived in the area and they lived, they were Navaho, and they lived in hogans and they would put up their looms to weave their hogans and we’d watch em, uh, weave their rugs on their looms by, on a real crude looms that they had made by hand, but they made beautiful rugs and jewelry.

Jenny: Did you go on family vacations anywhere?

Bob: Well, you mean, when we were, when we were young, or...uh...

Jenny: Mmm-hmm.

Bob: Well, yeah, occasionally, but it usu-was usually, uh, like these fishing trips and things like that, but, when I was, uh, oh, fairly young, uh, we made some trips like to uh, uh, Oklahoma. One of my aunts and uncles lived in Oklahoma and we traveled there on the train, and it took us 2 days to go to Oklahoma on the train, but, sta-stay overnight in, in uh, Branson, Missouri, and then, then boarded the train the next day, and uh, and went to Oklahoma, and it was late that afternoon when we got to uh, Clearmore, Oklahoma, where we were going, and uh, we made 2 trips there, and then I made a trip to California and back, uh, uh, when I think I was, I was 15 when we wen to California and back, and uh, and we traveled some other places a little bit, but uh, uh, that was probably my most memorable, um, vacations.

Jenny: What about you, Gammer?

Gracie: My family moved a lot, so that was a vacation (laughs). We-we moved real often, at least every 2 to 3 years, so, it was like a vacation to go to a new place and I'd go to a new school, and meet new people and, I loved it and, a lot of people'd say they couldn’t stand that moving from one school to another, but I enjoyed it, I-I liked going to a new place and going to a new school.

Jenny: Sounds like fun; I'd do that. Um, on love and dating and romance, how long did ya'll date before you got married?

Gracie and Bob: 4 years.

Jenny: Wow. How ol-how old were you when you started dating?

Bob: I was 16.

Gracie: 14. I was 14 (laughs). We were too young (Jenny and Bob laugh).

Jenny: Um, when you got married, how old were you? You were...

Bob: I was 20 and Grace was 18.

Jenny: And what was your wedding date?

Gracie: May 19, 19 and 50. It was also my graduation. I graduated the same day I got married.

Jenny: How did ya'll arrange that? The wedding and graduation?

Gracie: Well, he lived in Davenport, Iowa, because he graduated in 1948, and he was in Iowa, working and we ran-arranged it through letters, mostly.

Bob: We, uh, uh, she (pause) had to practice the day, on the day of our wedding, she had to practice her, uh, her graduation exercises in the gym, uh, that afternoon, so she did their practice and all of that until uh, probably 3 o'clock in the afternoon and then uh, uh, the two of us and som-a couple of friends drove to Harrison, and uh, we was married in Harrison about 5 o'clock in the afternoon and then we came back to Flippin to the graduation, and uh, she graduated and then we went back to Harrison and spend the night.

Jenny: Oh neat! (Bob laughs)

Gracie: Don’t need to tell everything (Jenny and Bob laugh).

Bob: Well (laughs).

Jenny: How did you dress when you went on dates? I know it had to be completely different from now.

Gracie: Well, it was (pause)...

Bob: Not a lot different to what it is now, I guess, we probably uh...

Gracie: Oh, yeah it was different because I didn’t wear jeans and T-shirts (Bob laughs) and stuff like that. No, I always wore dresses and, and uh, bobby socks and saddle oxfords usually (laughs). Skirts and blouses and, and the boys wore...

Gracie and Bob: Dress pants...

Bob: and a shirt.

Gracie: and a sports shirt.

Jenny: Um, how would you describe your relationship while you were still dating? Was it as close as you are now?

Gracie: Yeah.

Bob: Pretty much so.

Gracie: Course, we’d fight occasionally, but we always made up (laughs).

Jenny: And so you’ve been married 40...maybe 49...

Gracie: It’ll be 49 years in May.

Jenny: Wow.

Gracie: The year 2000, we’re going to have the 50th, the big one.

Bob: 50th wedding anniversary.

Jenny: Cool. What do you..?

Gracie: What do you have planned for us? (laughs)

Jenny: Big party. Big party (Gracie coughs). Um, when you were hunting or fishing, where did you hunt or fish? Was it around here?

Bob: We fished, yeah, we fished uh, mainly in White River. When I was a kid, that was before the Bull Shoals Dam was built and uh, White River was a good, uh, fishing stream for bass and uh, uh, or catfish, and uh, and other, other varieties of fish, you know. Now, it's it's all trout, now, basically, and uh, but, at that time, there was quite a variety of uh, of other fish in the White River, and that’s where we fished a lot.

(Pause)

Jenny: Did you do a lot of hunting?

Bob: Well, just squirrel hunting and, and uh, maybe rabbits, and that type of stuff.

Gracie: (whispers) Girl hunting (laughs). (Bob clears throat)

Jenny: Um, were there any laws that you had to abide by, when you were hunting or fishing?

Bob: Uh, not like there is now, no, there was limits and so forth, not like they are now. It was pretty much open.

Jenny: How often did you have to hunt or fish?

Bob: Did we have to? (laughs)

Jenny: I...no, you didn’t have to?

Bob: No, no, no, not very often, in the summer (Gracie coughs) summer time, and in the fall, you know, but, we could fish whenever we liked or hunt whenever we liked, fish mostly in the summer time and uh, and then hunt in the fall or spring.

Jenny: Did you make your own rods for your fishing?

Bob: No, bought em.

Jenny: You bought em? (Pause) On an average, how much money did you spend at the grocery store, cause you didn’t have to hunt or fish?

Bob: Oh (sighs, then pauses), um, I don’t know.

Gracie: Well, I-I don’t when I was a kid because my parents bought the groceries and we didn’t have much money to buy groceries with when I was a kid, but after we were married, (pause) probably $20 a week...

Bob: $15 to $20 a week.

Gracie: would buy a, a good supply of groceries.

Jenny: Did you have a favorite grocery store or did you just shop wherever?

Gracie: After we first married, we shopped at A&P (laughs) Markets.

Bob: Uh, yeah, that was, uh, that was in Davenport, Iowa, and uh, and that was uh, it was fairly good sized uh, supermarket, there. It was called A&P.

Gracie: Well, it was a chain.

Bob: A chain, yeah (Gracie coughs). Uh, course, at that time, our wages were not (pause) great, you know. I was, I was probably, when Grace and I married, I was probably...I was making uh, probably around $75 a week and uh, so, out of that, course was our groceries and our rent and, and car expenses and whatever, you know, but uh, but we lived probably as well as we do now, uh...

Gracie: Well, I wouldn’t go so far as to say that (laughs).

Bob: Uh, well (laughs). No...

Gracie: But we ate well.

Bob: But we ate well, and, and had a (laughs) place to live.

Jenny: I know that ya'll owned a grocery store. When did you st-st-own that?

Bob: We uh, we moved back here in 1962, and I bought in with my dad in 1962, and uh, I operated the uh (Gracie blows nose), the grocery store with dad until (pause) probably around uh, 1969 or 1970 and uh, the business burned in 19 and uh, 67, and we re-rebuilt it, and uh, and then he stayed there until uh, probably around 1970, and uh, oh, then I operated it by myself (clanging dishes) until 75 (clanging dishes) and I sold out the equipment and uh, stock and equipment uh, in 75 and uh, and kept the building, and uh, um (clock dings), but uh, well, that was the period of time that I, that I operated the bus-store, it was about 13 years.

Jenny: What type of groceries did you sell?

Bob: Well, it was just uh...

Gracie: All...

Bob: Ev-all, all groceries, it was all types of, of uh, canned goods and, and uh...

Gracie: Meat and...

Bob: Meat and, and all of that type...

Gracie: Just about anything that's in a grocery store now...

Bob: Just about anything in a grocery line.

Gracie: except in smaller amounts.

Bob: Uh (pause), it was uh, basically the same grocery line that, that you would find now at the grocery store.

Jenny: Gammer, did you own a dress shop?

Gracie: Yeah, I did, for 2 years.

Jenny: And was that near the grocery store?

Gracie: It was in the same building.

Bob: Same building.

Gracie: We owned the building and so, we redone the building and Jan and I put in a dress shop and we had it for 2 years.

Jenny: Did you sell a specific type of dress, or was it just all kinds?

Gracie: No, it was just uh, it was just dresses and sportswear, and underwear and (pause) just the average thing you'd find in any dress shop, uh (pause) but I didn't like dealing with the public so I got out of it (Jenny laughs).

Jenny: Um (pause), how much, er, how was the economy faring when you were a teenager? Was it good, was it basically the same?

Gracie: Bad.

Bob: Pretty bad (clears throat). When I, when we was in our teens, uh, they, uh, economy was, was very poor around here until (pause) uh, well, until the uh, building of the Bull Shoals Dam, I guess was the biggest shot to the economy around here, uh, course it started with the Norfork Dam, and uh, and that was built during World War II, course, uh, it was everything was rationed and, and, during World War II, so it was hard to, hard to get anything, hard to buy anything; couldn't buy cars, unless it was like used cars, you know, and uh, then after the war, they started manufacturing cars again, and, and there was quite a few jobs, lot of jobs around here, building the dam, and uh, so the economy improved, you know, it was, that was probably the beginning of the economy in this area.

Gracie: Yeah, but it still wasn't real great until some of the factories started coming in here...

Bob: No, that's true, till they started getting factories.

Gracie: because uh, when, when we graduated from high school if you want a job, you better go someplace else because there wasn't that many jobs around this area, and really the economy in this area was not good until after, well was not great until after the factories started coming in here.

Bob: We, uh, I worked for uh, the (pause), uh, well, it was actually the Brown and Root Company that built the Bull Shoals Dam when I first got out of high school, I worked from them, when the building of the, of the conveyor belt from the mountain to the northwest of Flippin to the uh, the Bull Shoals Dam and at, at that time, that was the largest conveyor belt, longest conveyor belt, in the world and uh, it carried all the rock for the Bull Shoals Dam, from the mountain to, to the dam, so I worked on that until, uh, uh, October, I guess, of 1948 and uh, and then I, I went to Iowa, and uh, got me a job there and uh, lived there till, well till we moved from there to Arizona in 1954 and uh, uh, so actually, I guess, we didn't, we wouldn't know too much about the economy around here during, during that period of time because we wasn't here, you know, we'd just come back for vacation and that sort of thing (Gracie coughs).

Jenny: Did you work while you were in school, or did you have to wait until (Gracie coughs) after you graduated?

Bob: Well, I worked in the summer time, uh, uh, I helped (pause) in quite a, quite a few construction jobs around here, uh, uh, I helped build the Baptist Church building that, that, the old Baptist Church building there, uh, in one summer. I think that was probably the summer of, of uh, 1947, 46 or 47, I guess, and uh, then several houses around Flippin, that, that I worked on, helped build, so forth, but uh, that type jobs, and, and course before that, well, it was, I worked on my granddad's farm in the summer time.

Jenny: What about you, Gammer?

Gracie: I didn't work. Nobody would hire me (laughs). Besides, my dad wouldn't let me (laughs). They needed me at home.

Jenny: So you didn't work after graduation?

Gracie: No, not until...I never held a job until we moved back to Arkansas in 62, and I went to work at Baxter Lab the day it opened and I worked there for almost 15 years. I helped uh, Poppa in the grocery store part of the time after we first moved back here, but boy, I didn't like that, either (laughs). So, I went...when Baxter Lab opened, I went to work there and I worked there until 78 and then, uh, I opened the gro-uh, the dress shop in uh, 79, I guess it was, and then in uh, 80, I went to nursing school and when I got out of nursing school, I went to work at Mountain Home uh, Special Education, and I worked there for 8 years and I got a chance to work at the Flippin School and worked there until I retired 3 years ago.

Jenny: Wow. Um, what was the average price of a car when you got your first car?

Bob: Oh (clears throat), well, new cars, uh, at that time and I'm talking about in 1948, oh a 1948 new car then probably around $1500-$2000 and uh, unless you got into the (pause) uh, like Cadillacs and cars like that, you'd get up around 4-$5000 for them, but, the average Chevrolet and Ford was running probably around $2000, uh, but uh, you could...

Gracie: (to Bob) How much did you pay for your first car? (laughs)

Bob: My first car, I paid $75 for (laughs).

Jenny: What kind of car was it? (Gracie coughs)

Bob: 32 Pontiac. (Gracie coughs)

Jenny: Did it run good? (Gracie coughs)

Bob: Well, it ran good.

Jenny: And you paid $75 for it?

Bob: Uh-huh. Yeah, and I sold it for $50 and a wrist watch (laughs).

Jenny: Man, I wish cars were still like that now.

Bob: (laughs) But uh, uh, then I-I sold that car and, and uh, and in 1948, when I left here, and went to Iowa, I didn't have a car, didn't own a car then, so, my first after I uh, went to Iowa was a 39 Ford and I paid $500 for it and uh, uh, then I traded it (pause) for a 42 Chevrolet car and that was uh, I think I paid uh, um, around $700 for it and it was a very good car, nice car, and uh, but (Gracie whispers) but you could uh, you could get a good car, then, for $500.

Jenny: How much was (pause) gas, like, for a tank of gas?

Bob: Uh, I think gasoline was selling for around, uh, 19 cents a gallon, uh (pause), the, that's the lowest I believe I can remember gasoline selling for.

Gracie: Well, I think when I used to have to fill up all the time going back and forth to work in Mountain Home, I think I was paying like 39 to 40-something cents a gallon in the early 60s.

Bob: Around 39 cents a gallon, yeah.

Jenny: Wow (laughs). Uh, what was considered minimum wage, when you were a teenager?

Bob: Huh, well (clears throat), um, I think uh, my first job's (pause) like, working for the construction company on the belt line, I think I was drawing around $1 an hour, and uh, uh, when I went to Iowa, I think my, I was making $1.75 an hour, then, and that was uh, uh, that was about the average wage at the time.

Jenny: How many hours did you work?

Bob: Well, in the beginning, I was working 8 hours a day, but then we, we uh, we went to 12 hours a day then, I worked for a long time for, at 12 hours a day and uh, uh, and sometimes 7 days a week, 12 hours a day.

Jenny: I couldn't do that (laughs) 12 hours every weekend, er, every weekend, day, that's enough for me! (Bob and Gracie laugh) Um, when you were a young adult, how much did a house cost, if you bought one, not building it?

Bob: Probably, you could buy a pretty good house for 4 or $5000, uh, you could buy a farm for 3 or $4000 (laughs), little house on it, so it's uh, you know, it's uh (pause), um, it'd be hard to say exactly, you know, what (pause) house prices were at that time. I think the first house we built here in Flippin uh, (pause) when it was completed and carpeting and everything was in it, uh, we had spent a little over $9000. It was a pretty nice house, 3-bedroom house.

Jenny: And where in Flippin was that?

Bob: It was on Park Street, between 6th and 7th Streets, on Park.

Jenny: Is it still there? Yeah.

Bob: It's right next to Jan's.

Gracie: Yeah, where Luell McCutchen lives, now.

Bob: Where Luell McCutchen lives, now.

Jenny: Oh, how many houses did you build?

Bob: I built 3 here.

Jenny: And, the one you're living in now, the one on Park Street, and where's the 3rd?

Bob: The third one's right next door, here, on the west of us.

Jenny: I remember that (laughs).

Gracie: The one where we lived when you, when you were born, Jenny (laughs).

Bob: When you were a baby (laughs). (Gracie coughs)

Jenny: Um (clears throat), so, did you (pause) when you were furnishing your house, did that cost a lot, or did you (pause)...

Gracie: Well, we thought it cost a lot for the time, uh, it was, course, not near as expensive as it is now, but uh (pause), probably based on the-uh, wages that we made then it was, it was about the same as now.

Bob: Probably equivalent to what it is now, depen-according to the wages, you know.

Jenny: What type of things did you put in a house?

Gracie: You mean, like furnishings?

Jenny: Yeah.

Gracie: Well, we put living room furniture and bedroom furniture and a stove and a refrigerator (laughs).

Bob: Dining room furniture.

Jenny: Is it the same as now?

Gracie: Basically.

Bob: Basically, yeah.

Jenny: Uh, when you were younger, did you use an icebox?

Gracie: Yeah, when I was a kid.

Bob: Yeah.

Gracie: We used an icebox, when-I had a cute iceman (Bob and Gracie laugh) and Poppa was jealous (Bob and Gracie laugh) because he came to our house and delivered ice to our house everyday (laughs).

Bob: He was a young guy.

Gracie: Yeah, he was young and he was cute. And if you didn't remember to empty the drain pan, you had water all over the floor (laughs) cause the ice would melt.

Bob: The ice would melt into it.

Jenny: Did-did you have a milkman that came by and delivered milk and stuff?

Gracie: Not here, but I-we did, well, I did, we did, when I was a kid, we lived in Los Angeles, milkman would bring milk and juice and butter and eggs, if you wanted eggs, and leave them at your back door every morning and then after we moved to Phoenix, we had a milkman for a long time, and that's the way we got our milk and eggs, juice, butter.

Jenny: Was he cute, too?

Gracie: I can't say (laughs). No, I think I always was still asleep then when he brought, uh, brought the stuff early in the morning, so, I don't-I thought your Poppa was cute then, so... (laughs)

Jenny: Th-how did they know what you wanted? Did you leave em a note?

Bob: Left, uh, you left, uh, uh, ta-uh, card...

Gracie: A card, they gave...

Bob: A card that you would mark.

Gracie: They would leave you a card and you'd hang it on your door and you would mark on there what you wanted each day.

Jenny: How did you pay them?

Gracie: Well, sometimes it, they usually at the end of the week, they would uh, leave you a bill, and uh...

Bob: I think, most times, you'd put it out with your, with your order.

Gracie: Yeah, they would, they would leave you a bill and you would just put it in an envelope and put it out with your order, and you didn't have to worry about people stealing it, either, then.

Jenny: That's neat. Um, do you remember World War II?

Gracie: Yes, I remember it very well.

Bob: Oh, yeah. Very well.

Jenny: How old were you?

Gracie: Well, I was 9 when it started. I remember uh, hearing about the bombing of Pearl Har-of Pearl Harbor and I was just 9. We lived in New Mexico, and I guess Poppa was 11.

Bob: Yeah, I was 11 when it started. And uh, remember it very well.

Jenny: And it affected the economy in this area, did it affect anything else?

Gracie: Well, I don't know about this area, but uh, all my family, my aunts, my uncles, and my grandparents, and my parents, we all moved to California and everybody went to work in the defense plants, and that was the first times in their lives they'd ever had decent jobs and making a decent living but uh (pause), it was also hard because it was hard to get meat you had to have uh, uh, stamps...

Bob: Rationing stamps.

Gracie: rationing stamps to get gas and tires and shoes and sugar and uh, ther-there were some hardships but uh, at least it was uh, it was a terrible time but it was also a time when a lot of people like my family and a lot of other families wh-wha for the first time in their lives making a decent living.

Jenny: Did you ever fight in a war? Or your family?

Gracie: No, we weren't old enough, but I had some cousins who...

Bob: Well, my brother (clears throat) my brother was in the Navy during World War II, and uh, uh, but uh, I had several uncles and all that was in the, in the service you know, but I didn't personally have to go.

Gracie: Well, you weren't even old enough.

Bob: Wasn't old enough, no.

Jenny: How much older was your brother?

Bob: He was 4 years older than me. He went in the Navy in 1943, I think, and was there until after the war. He was there for 4 years, I think, so he stayed, well, he was in the Navy until after the war.

Jenny: Um, did you (pause) uh, hav.. . I know the hard ships were quite common, but what was life like? What did you do during the war?

Bob: Well, of course, I was-we was in school and uh, uh, my dad uh, went to Kansas City and worked in a, in a defense plant in Kansas City for a period of time during World War II and so, all of the chores and so forth around our house, our home, here uh, was uh, I did that.

Gracie: Well, you know, wher-course I was in California in school during the war ad the schools were constantly having paper drives. We saved newspapers and we had scrap drives where you'd go out and gather up all the old scrap iron and metal that you could and uh, they used that in the war effort and even bacon grease, which, you couldn't real often get bacon, but when you did well, you would save it up in cans, and I think they used that in ammunition or something...

Bob: Well, they made explosives.

Gracie: explosive and you'd sav-and uh, the school would, would have these drives uh, for the war effort and we'd just bring in tons of paper, grease, and, and uh, scrap iron and then we also had the uh, bond uh, the war bond drives, and uh, the schools would even sell, you could buy a stamp for 10 cents and when you filled your book with these stamps uh, when you got uh, well, the, the $25 bond, you had to have 18...

Bob: $17, 17...

Gracie: 17 or $18...

Bob: $18.

Gracie: worth of these stamps and then you could turn that book in and you got a bond (pause) and uh, then in 7 years when they matured, well you could, you would get $25, or you could buy $50 bond or, but course, all we ever bought was the $25 ones, and our dad would gives us dimes every week to take to school to get the stamps to put in our books and, but, course, we were kids and, and uh, all that we could do in the war effort was uh, help with these drives that they would have collecting junk (pause) to make ammunition or whatever they made with all this stuff.

Bob: We'd haul in, go out in the country and find old car bodies and haul them in for the scrap drive, you know...

Gracie: So recycling's not really something new cause...

Bob: No, it's not anything new...

Gracie: during the war we recycled everything (laughs).

Bob: cause we recycled lots of things and uh, so it's uh, it's, it was uh, something everybody pitched in for, they had pie suppers uh, for, and, and bought bonds and so forth, and, and (Gracie coughs, couldn't understand Bob)...and uh...

Gracie: See, the bonds helped finance the war.

Bob: That was financing the war and uh, so it was uh, it was, ever-everyone was pretty much uh, involved in the, in the war, and everybody kinda pulled together.

Gracie: Well, almost everybody had someone in their family uh...

Bob: In the service.

Gracie: in the service and uh, so everybody wanted to help out to get it over with as soon as possible.

Jenny: What happened to the soldiers when they came back?

Gracie: Oh, they went to college because there was a G. I. bill of rights, they went to work um, they, they really made, I think the veterans of World War II made this country what it is today. They, they came back with an attitude of we, we can do it, and I think really the veterans of World War II made (pause) made it the country it is today, and, and it's economy and uh, the good things we have to enjoy now. I-I really believe the World War II veterans...

Bob: I think that attitude was, was developed among the whole population of the, of the country during World War II cause uh, uh most of the men, anyo-anyone who was able, was in the service and uh, the women, most of the women, uh, in the city areas and so forth, where they had factories and all, went to work in defense plants, and, and uh, they had an attitude of we can produce it for them to use and they did, so uh, it was, it was a common, uh, attitude among all the people, you know, that we can do it. And, and they did.

Jenny: It was a lot different from it is now.

Bob: Yeah.

Gracie: Yeah.

Bob: People then didn't depend on (pause) on the government to furnish everything for them, you know, they uh, they did it themselves.

Gracie: Well, we were embarrassed if the government tried to furnish us anything (laughs).

Bob: Yeah, yeah. We didn't want it.

Gracie: When I was a kid, people on welfare hid it and tried, ke-and nobody was poorer than my family but my dad woulda , I guess, starved himself to feed us to keep from getting welfare because we didn't... The people back of our generation really didn't want the government (pause) to help them we thought we were supposed to be responsible for ourselves and, I still think we are.

Jenny: Um, were there any natural disasters, major ones in this area, in the 1900s, early 1900s?

Bob: No, there's been some tornadoes and things like that you know but nothing...

Gracie: Well, White River used to flood didn't it.

Bob: Well, yeah. There used to be, almost every year, there'd be floods in White River...

Gracie: That was before my time.

Bob: but as uh, uh, as far as you know, tornadoes and things like that, uh, have been, I-I don't think, I can't remember when I was young, that we had tornadoes like we do now but, uh, there'd be, occasionally somewhere, in, in the general area, you know, of north Arkansas there'd be a tornado, occasionally, and uh, but not like (mumbled), there is now.

Jenny: Did you ever have any property damaged...

Bob: No

Jenny: by a tornado?

Bob: No. Uh, we uh, we were very fortunate. The only disaster that we ever had uh, in my lifetime when we lost our store and, to fire. But other than that, we've never had any problems that way.

Jenny: How did natural disasters affect the community as a whole?

Bob: Well, I-I don't know, I think probably, uh, something like that pulls a community together more than, uh, you know, people kin-pretty much go along their way until something like that happens and then they pull together, and uh, I know, after we moved back here from Arizona, uh, there was some tornadoes went through the area (Gracie blows nose) and uh, here, and destroyed several houses and people's property and so forth. (Gracie coughs) Everyone seems to come out and pretty much pitch in together and helped and a lot of the men would go out, I know I left my business and, and went and helped a couple of people rebuild the roofs back on their houses and so forth uh, and uh, and I think everyone pretty much did that, help out wherever they could. (Gracie coughs)

Jenny: Um, you said that your store burned down. How did that happen?

Bob: Well, we don't-course we don't know exactly what, what started it uh, it was probably it was an electrical fire and uh, it happened uh, around 3 o'clock in the morning and uh, uh, wasn't noticed at that time, cars were not through town like they now, at that time of the night so, it was, had, had been burning for several hours, probably before anyone noticed it and there was a man, about a block away that uh, that happened to come out and see it on fire, you know, and alerted the fire department so the time anyone got there, (Gracie coughs) it was uh, engulfed in flames and uh, so the actual cause of it never was actually determined but we suspected it was an electrical fire somewhere in the attic, in the top of it.

Jenny: How did Flippin School burn down?

Bob: Uh, we was not living here at that time...

Gracie: We were not living...

Bob: We were not living here (laughs) at that time, but, uh, thank you Gracie, but, uh, we was living in uh...

Gracie: (whispers) We were.

Bob: Uh, in Davenport, Iowa. (To Gracie) We'll have our grammar lesson later. And uh, heard about the fire, but our-the report that we got was that they had had a ball game in the gymnasium that night, and uh, had uh, at that time they were using wood stoves and uh, they think, or they thought that uh, the fire started from one of those wood stoves in the gymnasium and uh, there again, by the time that someone saw it or noticed that it was on fire uh, it was too far gone to save, and uh, so it burned completely to the ground.

Jenny: Were there any people hurt during the fire?

Bob: No, no. In fact, at that time, the-Flippin didn't have a fire department and uh, so uh, I think that was one of the things that probably encouraged the uh, organizing a fire department and getting at there was no water system here at that time either, and uh, that, that kind of encouraged getting uh, of a uh, water system installed and uh, and getting a fire department started here.

Jenny: Um, on superstitions and home remedies, how popular were superstitions back when you were younger?

Gracie: I think there were a lot of people with superstitions...

Bob: There was a lot of those at that time.

Gracie: really weird ones (laughs). There were a lot of weird people, too (laughs).

Bob: Uh, yeah, I think there was (Gracie coughs) probably a lot of superstitions.

Jenny: What, what types of superstitions?

Bob: Oh, like, like cats and walking under ladders, and that, that type thing.

Gracie: Lot of what they called old wives tales.

Bob: Wives tales.

Jenny: Did you believe any of the superstitions?

Bob: No.

Gracie: No (laughs). Never did (laughs).

Jenny: Um, (pause) how did you get rid of colds and stuff using home remedies, since there was no Actifed...

Gracie: Vicks-sav (laughs). Tons of it (laughs).

Bob: Vicks-sav (laughs).

Jenny: What's that?

Gracie: Vicks, you know, the Vicks...

Bob: The, the vapor rub.

Jenny: The stuff in the jar.

Gracie: Vicks vapor rub in the jars. My mother believed in that.

Bob: And menthalatum.

Gracie: And uh, uh, flannel rag on your chest with lots of real hot, with lots of Vicks under it, that got rid of your...and then you rub the Vicks on your throat and in your nose and all over you, you were greasy.

Bob: Back when I was a kid, uh, they, a lot of the old people would take mullan leaves, which is a plant, and boil them and uh, make a, like a tea...

Gracie: Eww.

Bob: out of (laughs) out of that and have, and, and drink it (coughs) and it seemed to work (laughs) it was a...

Gracie: Oh, and kerosene. If you got a cut, you poured kerosene in it. (Pause)...

Bob: And it worked.

Gracie: But you know what? It worked. The cuts hea...we didn't, we didn't go get (clock dings) uh, stitches.

Bob: No one ever went...

(Bob and Gracie are talking over each other; I can't understand what Bob is saying here.)

Gracie: Never heard of a stitch until, except sewing, till I was nearly grown and uh, but my dad, when any of us would get a cut, would run and get the kerosene can and pour kerosene in it, it got well (laughs).

Bob: Healed. It would heal. It killed the germs, I guess (laughs).

Jenny: Were there any other home remedies that you used (pause) for different types of illnesses or just (pause) health in general?

Gracie: Well, if you had uh, uh (pause) heartburn or upset stomach or anything, they'd give you soda in water...Eww.

Bob: Yeah, that works, too.

Gracie: No, it don't (laughs). But mostly patented medicines that you just got off the drugstore shelf or home remedies. We didn't run to the doctor for very many things. It had to be really bad before you went to the doctor.

Jenny: You lived during the Great Depression, didn't you?

Gracie: Well, I was born during the Depression.

Bob: Born during the Depression.

Jenny: So you wouldn't really know how it affected (pause) many things, would you?

Bob: Not too much, we just uh...

Gracie: I know how it affected my family because my dad, lots of times, would be working for 50 to 75 cents a day, if he was lucky to find work. This was in the early 30s; I was born in 1932, so uh, well it was basically a lot like that until the beginning of World War II but uh, jobs were hard to find or they didn't pay anything.

Bob: Here, during that time, uh, everyone uh, everyone raised their own meat, like hogs and cows, calves, whatever, and uh, and they had gardens and did a lot of canning and, and uh, so (pause) they didn't have any...no one was starving or anything like that. There was not much money around uh, my dad worked for the railroad, and uh (Gracie coughs) during that time, I think. During the time that I can remember, he was, he was uh, making like $32 a month for uh, uh so we had (pause) probably all of our needs, we didn't any money for a lot of extras or anything like that, we had to...

(End of tape)

Captions:

David Lynn and Janice Faye -

2 of Bob and Gracie's 4 kids.

 

(L to R): Steven Layne, Janice Faye,

David Lynn, and John Michael -

All 4 of Bob and Gracies kids.

(On the back of the picture, Gracie wrote:

Cute kids!)

John Michael (Mike) and Steven Layne (Steve)

(On the back of the picture, Gracie wrote: This

was made over where we used to live. Looks

like they were enjoying the watermelon, doesnt

it?)

 

 

Gracie and Mike

(On the back of the picture, Gracie wrote: Love

always, me + my youngin.)

 

 

Gracie

(On the back of the picture, Gracie wrote: Me - 1949)

 

 

Gracie in her graduation

cap and new pajamas.

 

 

Gracie with an old Chevrolet.

 

Gracie and Mike.

 

Bob and Gracies house and car

in Davenport, Iowa.

 

Bob and Gracies store -

Marberry Groceries and Meats

 

(Back row, L to R):

Betty, Leroy, and Mary Smith

(Front row, L to R):

Gladys and Gracie Deen

 

Ma Smith

 

Mary Elva Smith

 

David and Tabitha Freedway

at Gracies mothers grave.